An autoimmune disease is a disorder in which the body is targeted incorrectly by the immune system.
Normally , the immune system protects against germs such as bacteria and viruses. It sends an army of fighter cells out to attack them when it detects these foreign invaders. In cases of overactivity of the immune system , the body attacks its own tissues and destroys them (autoimmune diseases). The ability of the body to combat invaders is diminished by immune deficiency diseases, causing susceptibility to infections.
The immune system will usually tell the difference between foreign cells and your own.
In an autoimmune disorder, part of your body, such as your joints or skin, is mistaken as foreign by the immune system. It releases proteins that attack healthy cells , called autoantibodies.
1. Type 1 diabetes
The hormone insulin is released by the pancreas, which helps control blood sugar levels. The immune system attacks and kills insulin-producing cells in the pancreas during type 1 diabetes mellitus.
High blood sugar outcomes, as well as organs such as the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves, can result in damage to the blood vessels.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
In rheumatoid arthritis ( RA), the joints are targeted by the immune system. This assault induces redness in the joints, warmth, soreness, and stiffness.
RA may start as early as your 30s or earlier, unlike osteoarthritis, which typically affects individuals as they grow older.
3. Multiple sclerosis
In the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS) hurts the myelin sheath, the protective layer that protects nerve cells. Damage to the myelin sheath slows down the transfer speed of messages to and from the rest of the body between the brain and spinal cord.
Symptoms such as numbness, fatigue, balance problems, and trouble walking may result from this harm. The disease occurs in many forms that develop at varying rates
4. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Though lupus was first identified by doctors in the 1800s as a skin disease because of the rash it typically causes, the most common systemic type actually affects many organs, including the joints, kidneys, brain, and heart.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease
• A term used to describe conditions that cause inflammation of the lining of the intestinal wall is inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD). A different section of the GI tract is affected by each kind of IBD.
6. Addison’s disease
The adrenal glands, which contain cortisol and aldosterone hormones as well as androgen hormones, are affected by Addison's disease. Weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and low blood sugar are among the signs.
7. Graves’ disease
The thyroid gland in the neck is targeted by Graves' disease, causing it to release too many of its hormones. Thyroid hormones regulate the energy use of the body, known as metabolism.
Getting too many of these hormones revs up the activities of the body, triggering symptoms such as nervousness, rapid heartbeat, heat aversion, and weight loss.
8. Sjögren’s syndrome
This disease affects the glands that supply the eyes and mouth with lubrication. Dry eyes and dry mouth are the hallmark signs of Sjögren 's syndrome, but it can also affect the joints or skin.
9. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Thyroid hormone development slows into a deficiency in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Weight gain, cold sensitivity, weakness, hair loss, and thyroid swelling (goitre) are symptoms.
10. Myasthenia gravis
Myasthenia gravis influences nerve impulses that enable the muscles to be regulated by the brain. Signals do not guide the muscles to contract when contact from the nerves to the muscles is disrupted.
11. Autoimmune vasculitis
When the immune system targets blood vessels, autoimmune vasculitis occurs. The resulting inflammation narrows the arteries and veins, enabling less blood to flow through them.
12. Pernicious anemia
This condition causes a protein deficiency, developed by stomach lining cells, known as the intrinsic factor required to absorb vitamin B-12 from food in the small intestine. One will experience anaemia without enough of this vitamin, and the ability of the body to adequately synthesise DNA will be altered.
In older adults, pernicious anaemia is more prevalent. A individual over 60 years of age.
13. Celiac disease
Gluten-containing foods, a protein found in wheat, rye, and other grain products, cannot be consumed by people with celiac disease. The immune system destroys this section of the gastrointestinal tract when gluten is in the small intestine and causes inflammation.
Autoimmune disease symptoms
The early symptoms of many autoimmune diseases are very similar, such as:
• achy muscles
• swelling and redness
• low-grade fever
• trouble concentrating
• numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
• hair loss
• skin rashes
Individual diseases may have unusual symptoms of their own as well. Extreme hunger, weight loss, and exhaustion are caused by type 1 diabetes, for example. Belly discomfort, bloating, and diarrhoea are caused by IBD.
Symptoms can come and go with autoimmune illnesses like psoriasis or RA. A flare-up is considered a phase of symptoms. Remission is called a time when the symptoms go away.
Signs of an autoimmune disease may be symptoms such as weakness, muscle aches, swelling and redness. Over time, symptoms can come and go.
Just one organ targets some autoimmune disorders. The pancreas is affected by type 1 diabetes. The entire body is affected by other diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).