Cancer is the unchecked development anywhere in a body of abnormal cells.
There are more than 200 cancer forms.
Anything that could potentially cause an irregular development of a normal body cell can cause cancer; general definitions of it's-related or causative agents are as follows: exposures to chemical or radioactive substances, ionizing radiation, other bacteria, and human genetics.
Although general signs and symptoms are not very clear, the following are the cancer symptoms observed in patients: fatigue, weight loss, discomfort, Skin changes, changes in bowel or bladder function, irregular bleeding, persistent cough or voice changes, fever, lumps, or tissue masses.
Although there are many tests to screen and presumably diagnose cancer, a biopsy sample of suspected cancer tissue is examined to make a definite diagnosis.
The staging of it is often determined by biopsy results and helps to determine the type of cancer and the extent of cancer spread; staging also helps caregivers to identify treatment protocols. In general, cancer in the body is more aggressive or more widespread in most staging methods, the higher the number assigned (usually between 0 and 4). Staging methods vary from cancer to tumor and need to be discussed with your health care provider on an individual basis.
Treatment protocols vary depending on tumor type and stage. Some procedures for treatment are designed to fit the condition of the individual patient. Some therapies, however, include at least one of the following: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
There are many home remedies and alternative it's treatments listed, but it is strongly recommended that patients discuss these with their cancer doctors before using them.
Cancer prognosis can vary from very good to bad. The prognosis depends on the type of cancer and its staging with those cancers that are known to be aggressive, and those that are staged with higher numbers (3 to 4) often have a prognosis that is more poor.
What is cancer(Tumor)?
It is the uncontrolled growth anywhere in a body of abnormal cells. These abnormal cells are called cells of Tumor, malignant cells, or cells of the tumor. These cells may infiltrate the tissues of the normal body. Many cancers and the abnormal cells that make up the tumor tissue are further known by the tissue name from which the abnormal cells originated (such as Breast Cancer
, lung tumor, colorectal tumor). Cancer is not confined to humans; animals and other living organisms can develop tumor. Below is a schematic that shows normal cell division and how, when a cell is damaged or altered without repairing its system, the cell usually dies. It is also shown what happens when such damaged or unrepaired cells do not die and become tumor cells and show uncontrolled division and growth — a mass of tumor cells develop.
Tumor cells often break away from this original mass of cells, travel through the blood and lymph systems, and lodge in other organs where they can repeat the uncontrolled growth cycle. This process of tumor cells leaving the area and growing in another area of the body is called metastatic spread or metastases. For example, if the tumor cells of the breast spread to the bone, it means that the individual has metastatic Breast Cancer
to the bone. This is not the same as "bone tumor," which would mean that the tumor had started in the bone.
The three most common cancers in men, women, and children, in india are as follows:
Prostate, lung, and colorectal
, lung, and colorectal
Leukemia, brain tumors, and lymphoma
The incidence of cancer and types of cancer is influenced by many factors, such as age, gender, race, local environmental factors, diet and genetics. As a result, the incidence of tumors and types of tumor varies depending on these variables. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) provides the following general information on tumor worldwide:
It is the world's leading cause of death. There were 8.2 million deaths (about 22 percent of all non-communicable diseases deaths; most recent WHO data).
Lung, stomach, liver, prostate, and Breast Cancer
cause the most cancer deaths every year.
Cancer deaths worldwide are projected to continue to grow, with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030 (about 70 per cent increase).
Different parts of the world may have cancers that are either more or less common than those present in the United States. One example is that stomach cancer is often found in Japan, while it is rarely found in the United States. This is usually a combination of environmental and genetic factors.
The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to the general aspects of cancer. It is intended to provide an overview of cancer and can not cover any type of cancer. The article will also try to help direct the reader to more comprehensive information on different types of cancer.
What are risk factors and causes of cancer?
Anything that could potentially lead to an irregular development of a normal body cell can cause cancer. Much can cause cell abnormalities and has been associated with the development of cancer. Many causes of cancer remain unknown while other cancers have triggers for the environment or lifestyle, or may arise from more than one known cause. Some may be affected by the genetic makeup of a person in terms of growth. Because of a combination of these factors, several patients develop cancer. Although identifying the initiating event(s) that cause cancer to grow in a specific person is often difficult or impossible, research has provided clinicians with a variety of likely causes that are likely candidates for cancer initiation either alone or in combination with other causes. The following is a list of major causes and is not all-inclusive as there are regularly added specific causes as work progresses:
Benzene, asbestos, iron, cadmium, vinyl chloride, benzidine, N-nitrosamine, nicotine or smoking (contains at least 65 identified chemical substances and toxins), asbestos and aflatoxin. Ionizing radiation: uranium, radon, sunlight ultraviolet rays, alpha, beta, gamma, and X-ray sources.
human papillomavirus (HPV), EBV or Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis virus B and C, Kaposi's herpes virus (KSHV), Merkel cell polyomavirus, Schistosoma spp., and Helicobacter pylori; other bacteria are being studied as potential agents.
A variety of different cancers have been related to human genes and are as follows: breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate, Skin
and melanoma; particular genes and other specifics go beyond the reach of this general article so that the reader is referred to the National Cancer Institute for more information on genetics and cancer.
It is important to note that most people have cancer risk factors and are exposed over their lifetime to cancer-causing substances (such as radiation, secondary cigarette smoke, and X-rays), but many people do not develop cancer. Additionally, many people have the genes that are related to, but do not grow, cancer. Why? While researchers may not be able to provide a satisfactory answer for each individual, it is clear that the higher a person is exposed to the amount or level of cancer-causing materials, the higher the chance that the person will develop cancer. Additionally, for similar reasons, people with genetic ties to cancer may not develop it (lack of adequate stimuli to make the genes work). In fact, certain people may have an improved immune response that regulates or destroys cells that may or may not cancer cells. There is evidence that even some dietary habits can play a significant role in allowing or preventing the survival of cancer cells in tandem with the immune system. For these factors, several people have trouble identifying a clear cause of cancer.
Other risk factors have recently been added to the list of items that can increase the risk of cancer. Specifically, the International Agency for Research on tumor has classified red meat (such as beef, lamb and pork) as a high-risk agent for potentially causing tumor; more processed meat (salted, grilled, canned and/or cured meat) has been placed on the cancer list.
Individuals who eat a lot of barbecue meat may also increase the risk due to high temperature compounds. Other less-defined conditions that may increase the risk of certain cancers include obesity, lack of exercise, chronic inflammation, and hormones, especially those hormones used for alternative therapy. Some items like cell phones were studied extensively. The World Health Organization identified low-energy radiation from cell phones as "possibly carcinogenic" in 2011, but this is a very low level of risk that places cell phones at the same risk as coffee and pickled vegetables.
It is difficult to prove that a substance does not cause or is not associated with an increased risk of cancer. For example, some researchers and not others consider antiperspirants to be related toBreast Cancer
. The NCI's official position is "additional research is needed to examine this relationship and other factors that may be involved." This unsatisfactory interpretation is provided due to the conflicting data collected so far. Many similar claims require intense and costly work that can never be carried out. Reasonable advice could be to avoid large quantities of any substances even remotely associated with cancer, although in diverse, technologically advanced modern societies it may be difficult to do so.
What are cancer symptoms and signs?
Symptoms and signs of cancer depend on the type of tumor in which it is located and/or where tumor cells have spread. For example, Breast Cancer
may be present as a lump in the breast or as a nipple discharge, while metastatic breast tumor may show signs of pain (if spread to the bones), extreme fatigue (lungs), or seizures (brain). A few patients do not exhibit signs or symptoms until the cancer is far advanced.
24 hours pharmacy describes seven warning signs and/or symptoms that cancer may be present and that should prompt a person to seek medical attention.
• Change in bowel or bladder habits
• A sore throat that does not heal
• Unusual bleeding or discharge (for example, nipple secretions or a "sore" that does not heal the material)
• Thickening or lump in the breast, testicles, or elsewhere
• Indigestion (usually chronic) or difficulty swallowing
• There is an obvious change in the scale, color, shape or thickness of the wart or mole
• Nagging cough or hoarseness
Certain signs or symptoms may also alert you or your doctor to the possibility that you may have some form of tumor. These include the following:
• Unexplained loss of weight or loss of appetite
• A pain in the bones or other parts of the body that may be steadily worsening, or come and go, but is unlike previous pains one has had before
• Persistent fatigue, nausea, or vomiting
• Unexplained low-grade fevers may be either recurrent or may come and go.
• Recurrent infections that are not consistent with the usual treatment
Anyone with these signs and symptoms should contact their physician; these symptoms may also occur from cancer-free conditions;-
Most cancers have some of the above general symptoms, but often have one or more symptoms that are more unique to the type of tumor. For example, lung tumor may have common symptoms of pain, but the pain is usually found in the chest. The patient may have irregular bleeding, but bleeding usually occurs when the patient coughs. Patients with lung tumor often get short of breath and then get really tired.